Analyzing Tanzania's Water Resource Management Act

The control of how much, where and when water is abstracted is done by issuing of water use permit. If water abstraction is not controlled, it will reach a point that our water sources will deplete and result into water stress situation, where people and the surrounding environment will not have enough water for survival. Water sources in Tanzania are faced with different problems that may cause either water depletion (reduction in quantity) or water pollution (deterioration of quality).

Increasing human activities and the land use practices in the various catchment areas are impacting on the availability of water resources through consequent changes to runoff patterns, groundwater recharge mechanisms and the overall water balance of catchment areas.

Deforestation, agricultural activities like use of pesticides and irrigation, livestock grazing, settlement near water sources, industrial activities, fisheries, wildlife and tourism, energy production and mining activities are some of the human activities that are detrimental to water sources.

According to Tanzania Water Policy 2002, Tanzania's annual renewable water resources are 2,700 cubic meters of water per person per year. Based on projected population from estimated 33 million in year 2001 to about 59.8 million by year 2025, annual average available water per capita will be reduced by 45 percent to about 1,500 cubic meters per person per year. This shows that the country will face a water stress situation, considering that quantity of below 1,700 cubic meters per person per year signifies water scarcity.

Curt Carnemark / World Bank


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